When writing an article, there are many barriers to overcome. One of them, which requires time, effort and attention, is the correct citation and reference of the articles that will give support and evidence in any investigation. The different systems or styles required by the journals, both for citations in the text and for bibliographic references, demand significant attention to the last detail, which constitutes a challenge for the publication.
There is the aforementioned referencing system called Harvard. This is concise and avoids digressions: everything important is mentioned in the body of the text. If the data that is mentioned is not relevant, it means that it is dispensable, ergo does not have to be included in the text or in the footnote. It is widely used, for example, in Archeology and Anthropology publications. This system consists of quoting in abbreviated form in the text, in parentheses, the surname of the author whose work one wants to refer to, and the year of publication. If you want to cite several works published in the same year by the same author, they are alluded with lowercase letters following an alphabetical order. If the author is cited in the text, only the year is placed in parentheses. Another renewed option adds, in the same parenthesis, two points plus the specific pages, in cases in which the aforementioned event is located in a timely manner, instead of in the complete work. For example, this text that I invent here:
Antonio Zozaya (1927: 207) criticized the erroneous equation of the word Constitution to the term Charter Awarded many years ago. In our century, an octogenarian author has echoed that crass error (HERCILLA, 2005). Despite the warnings, politicians continue to use both terms indiscriminately as if they were synonyms. Besides, instead of correcting it, now it has also become fashionable to match the Magna Carta to the constitution”
At the end of the study there will be a developed bibliography that has to offer the reference of each work cited by alphabetical order of surnames, plus the name (or the initial one, following the criteria chosen). Remember that if an author has several works published in the same year, lowercase letters are added following an alphabetical order (1990a, 1990b). You can follow the same criteria as those listed above.
Harvard Referencing Examples
The Harvard style presents citations within the text of the work, using the author’s last name, the date of publication and the page cited in parentheses. This system does not require the use of footnotes.The system is based on indicating the author, the year and the page, in parentheses, wherever necessary. In general, when the cited title has several authors and you do not want to mention all of them, the formula “and others” will be preferred to “et al.”. If there is more than one volume, it is indicated in Roman numerals. When another work by the same author is cited within the same text, these letters are also used in the reference within the text.
Example:Williams (1995, p.45) maintained that “when buying personality disorders, the patient’s age should be taken into account”
Recently it has led to a concrete analysis of this whole chronicle set. For example, if an author has been cited for more than one of his publications published in the same year, then the data is accompanies by a lowercase letter such as Harding (1986a; 1986b).
If we have to cite three or more than three authors, they are cited with surnames of all the authors, first time. However, if we have to cite it again then we will just mention the surname of the first author with et al. For example (Moore et al., 1984).
When it is necessary to refer to a source whose author has not been able to identify with precision, the first two or three words of the title are cited (respecting the typography that the complete quotation should have: italics, quotation marks …), followed by the year.
The list of references must be ordered in alphabetical manner arranged according to authors’ suname. The Harvard format indicates that the titles of books, magazines, encyclopaedias, newspapers, etc. be highlighted using italic or italic typography.
Huizinga, Johann (2005), The autumn of the Middle Ages: studies on the form of life and spirit during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries in France and the Netherlands, Madrid: Alliance.
Gómez Redondo, Fernando (1998-2007), History of medieval Castilian prose, Madrid: Cátedra, 4 volumes.
Important: Up to 3 authors of the same publication can be cited. The following and subsequent will be indicated with the formula “and others”.